In the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia almost 70% of adults are dangerously overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2), and up to 36% meet the criteria for obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) [1].

Without a doubt being overweight and obese is a No1. public health priority. It is well established that being overweight and obese is associated with increased risk of chronic disease and premature death. 

Some of the chronic conditions associated with this are: hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, stroke, various types of cancer, osteoarthritis, respiratory problems, and gallbladder disease [2, 3].

To “hit-home” the seriousness of this issue, poor nutrition and a lack of physical activity, often precursors of obesity, have been cited as the second leading “actual cause of death”, right behind tobacco usage [4]. In addition, the economic impact of being overweight and obese in countries like the United States is staggering, estimated at more than $215 billion annually, with $147 billion in direct medical costs [5].

Although a considerable number of adults report that they are trying to lose weight, few are making the necessary lifestyle changes required to promote weight loss [6]. In addition, 80% of individuals who have lost at least 10% of their bodyweight are unable to maintain this weight loss for 1 year [7].

A comprehensive lifestyle approach to weight loss/weight management afford individuals the best opportunity for successful long-term weight loss success. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Obesity Society all recommend attention be given to the following three areas [8]:



Iain Pearson used Metabolic Precisions' research-proven resistance exercise programs to shed an incredible 40kgs and keep it off. Read more about Iain here.

1. Reduction in daily caloric intake; specifically, a reduction in foods and beverages that tend to be high in fat or simple sugars, but lack essential nutrients. The Metabolic Precision way of eating will ensure that these foods are a minimal part of your diet!

2. Physical activity/exercise. Most people do not get enough exercise and the older you get the more you need[1] Less than 45% of adults currently meet the minimal recommendations.

3. Behavior modification-This has to deal with identifying behaviors associated with or contributing to poor dietary choices and a sedentary lifestyle and then implementing strategies that influence favorable changes.

Most people understand the need for aerobic-type activity and its importance for managing weight loss. However, many folks are not aware of the vital role resistance exercise plays in a comprehensive weight management, body shape improvement program.



Meredith Edge lost over 50kgs in 12 months thanks to an amazing Resistance Exercise program designed by her MP Transformation Specialist. Read more here.

Typically, individuals perform RE in order to enhance strength, muscle mass or both [10]. In addition, RE causes favorable changes in body composition, muscular endurance, bone density, cardiac risk factors, psychological well-being, and metabolism [10-12].

Strasser and Schobersberger published an extensive review article and concluded that RE caused favorable changes in body composition (decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass [LBM]), can help “maintain reduced fat mass in obese patients after exercise training or energy intake restriction,” and is effective in reducing abdominal obesity [13].

It is important to note that although the inclusion of RE might not enhance short-term weight loss; it does result in healthy changes in body composition and may play an important role in successful long-term weight management.




MP's science-based resistance exercise system transformed 44yr old mum of two, Karren Harrison's body completely. Read Karen's story here.

A six-month study utilized brief, but intense RE illustrated the potential weight management value of RE. In this study, overweight adults engaged in 3 RE sessions per week completing 1 set of 9 different exercises using loads equivalent to 85-90% of 1 repetition maximum. The average amount of time to complete each workout was 11 minutes.

Results showed a 50% increase in upper-body and lower-body strength, and a 2.7% increase in fat-free mass (FFM). A very interesting finding was that the resistance-trained subjects demonstrated a significant increase in both resting metabolic rate (RMR) and sleep metabolic rate (SMR) when compared with control subjects.

In addition, there was an increase in 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) and a decrease in resting and sleep respiratory quotient (RQ) values in the resistance-trained group. The lower RQ suggests a greater reliance on fat as a fuel source [14]. These findings offer compelling support for the inclusion of RE as part of a weight management strategy.



A feature of Yvette May's amazing journey was a structured MP resistance exercise program. Read more about Yvette here.

There is also evidence that during periods of reduced caloric intake, RE could attenuate [15] or even prevent [11] the loss of FFM as opposed to subjects on the same reduced caloric intake who performed aerobic exercise experienced a significant loss of FFM.

Another weight management benefit of RE is its potential to preserve RMR during periods of weight loss. This would conceivably cause a successful maintenance of weight loss and long-term weight management. It’s been reported that the energy expenditure associated with 1 kg of muscle tissue is approximately 13 kcal/d, whereas 1 kg of fat tissue requires approximately 4.5 kcal/d [16].

Thus, it appears that RE protects against loss of muscle tissue and better preserves RMR and would be an important strategy for long-term weight management [17].

In order to make the absolute most out of your weight loss/management strategy, it is highly recommended to combine both modes (resistance and aerobic) of exercise. When compared with aerobic only or resistance only, the combined training was superior in terms of its effects on percent body fat and reduction of fat mass [18].



Matt Madden lost a staggering 70kgs of unwanted weight over 12 months thanks to his MP Trainer knowing how to integrate the right amount of resistance with cardio exercise. Read about Matt here.

Take home messages:
• Aerobic-type physical activity is associated with a wide variety of health benefits (e.g. increased VO2 max, decreased body fat) and is recognized as a critical component of a comprehensive weight loss/weight management program.
• Resistance exercise promotes improvements in muscle mass and strength in addition to other health benefits.
• Exercise programs combining both aerobic and resistance exercise are shown to be superior in terms of producing favorable changes in body composition.
• A weight management strategy that combines a controlled/reduced calorie diet, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise may be the best for reducing body fat and preventing the loss of LBM and RMR.

Just one of the unique aspects of Metabolic Precision is we teach how to implement research-proven exercise programing systems - know exactly the right type & amount of exercise to speed fat loss, body composition & shape changes for every one.  Become MP Certified, Learn more here.









References
1. Flegal, K.M., et al., Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA, 2012. 307(5): p. 491-7.
2. Aronne, L.J., Classification of obesity and assessment of obesity-related health risks. Obes Res, 2002. 10 Suppl 2: p. 105S-115S.
3. Field, A.E., et al., Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med, 2001. 161(13): p. 1581-6.
4. Mokdad, A.H., et al., Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA, 2004. 291(10): p. 1238-45.
5. Hammond, R.A. and R. Levine, The economic impact of obesity in the United States. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, 2010. 3: p. 285-95.
6. Bish, C.L., et al., Diet and physical activity behaviors among Americans trying to lose weight: 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Obes Res, 2005. 13(3): p. 596-607.
7. Wing, R.R. and S. Phelan, Long-term weight loss maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 82(1 Suppl): p. 222S-225S.
8. Jakicic, J.M., et al., American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33(12): p. 2145-56.
9. Donnelly, J.E., et al., American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009. 41(2): p. 459-71.
10. Hass, C.J., M.S. Feigenbaum, and B.A. Franklin, Prescription of resistance training for healthy populations. Sports Med, 2001. 31(14): p. 953-64.
11. Bryner, R.W., et al., Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. J Am Coll Nutr, 1999. 18(2): p. 115-21.
12. Williams, M.A., et al., Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation, 2007. 116(5): p. 572-84.
13. Strasser, B. and W. Schobersberger, Evidence for resistance training as a treatment therapy in obesity. J Obes, 2011. 2011.
14. Kirk, E.P., et al., Minimal resistance training improves daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009. 41(5): p. 1122-9.
15. Geliebter, A., et al., Effects of strength or aerobic training on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and peak oxygen consumption in obese dieting subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997. 66(3): p. 557-63.
16. Wang, Z., et al., Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between men and women. Am J Hum Biol, 2011. 23(3): p. 333-8.
17. Sword, D.O., Exercise as a Management Strategy for the Overweight and Obese: Where does Resistance Exercise Fit in? Strength and Conditioning Journal, 2012. 34(5): p. 47-55.
18. Park, S.K., et al., The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on abdominal fat in obese middle-aged women. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci, 2003. 22(3): p. 129-35.

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